Voice & its Changes: Comprehensive Guide with Formulas and Examples

Dive into our detailed exploration of voice changes in English. Packed with formulas and a plethora of examples, this article is your one-stop resource for understanding and mastering the nuances of voice changes.

Apr 19, 2024 - 11:21
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Voice & its Changes: Comprehensive Guide with Formulas and Examples
Voice & its Changes Comprehensive Guide with Formulas and Examples

Voice And Its Changes


Verb ev wµqv cÖKv‡ki aiY‡K Bs‡iwR‡Z voice ejv nq|

(Voice is the form of a verb which is used to say or what the subject does or what happens to the subject)

 

Verb – Gi cÖKvk fw•M e‡j ‡`q subject KvRwU wb‡R Ki‡Q, bv object-Gi Øviv KvRwU m¤úbœ n‡”Q|

 

‡hgb: Atik Sir has prepared this sheet.

          This sheet has been prepared by Atik Sir.

Dc‡ii cÖ_g ev‡K¨ subject wb‡R KvR Ki‡Q Ges wØZxq ev‡K¨ object Øviv KvRwU m¤úbœ nq eySv‡”Q|

 

Voice mvaviYZ `yB cÖKvi|

h_v:

1. Active voice (KZ©©„evP¨)

2. Passive voice (Kg©evP¨)|

 

Active Voice: Subject wb‡RB KvR K‡i Giƒc eySv‡j verb- Gi Active Voice nq|

 

‡hgb: We teach our juniors.

          I love MasterMind.

Atik Sir encourages me.

Get to MasterMind to learn English and computer.

 

Passive Voice: verb Gi †h form G subject wb‡RB †Kvb KvR K‡i Ggb bv eywS‡q eis Zvi Øviv KvRwU m¤úvw`Z nq Giƒc eySvq, Zv‡K Passive Voice ejv nq| Passive Voice G subject Gi †P‡q object Gi ¸iæZ †ewk cÖvavb¨ cvq|

 

‡hgb: Mou is hated by me.

         I am encouraged by Atik Sir.

         Let the deed be done

         Why is English being learnt by you?

 

Active voice -‡K   Passive voice G i~cvšÍ‡ii wbqg:

1.     Object subject n‡e|

2.     To be verb em‡e|

3.     g~j Verb Gi past participle n‡e|

4.     Preposition ‡hgb-  By, To, At, With e¨en„Z n‡e|

5.     Nominative wU objective n‡q preposition “by” Gi c‡i wM‡q em‡e|

 

‡hgb: Active: We can learn English at MasterMind.                 

         Passive: English can be learnt at MasterMind.

Active voice ‡_‡K passive voice Ges passive voice †_‡K active voice Kivi mgq wewfbœ subject Gi iƒcvšÍi|

Subject            Object                                      Subject             Object

          I                      Me                                       Ariyan               Ariyan

        He                    Him                                      The girl             the girl

        We                  Us                                          The boy             the boy

      They                 Them                                      Who                  by whom

       She                   Her                                         Whom               who

      You                   You

           

wewfbœ  Tense Gi voice change Gi wbqg

Assertive Sentence

Present Indefinite tense  hy³ Active voice  ‡K  Passive voice  Ki‡Z n‡j|

1.     Object wU subject nq|

2.      cwiewZ©Z Subject Gi c‡i subject Abyhvqx am/is/are nq|

3.      g~j Verb Gi  past participle form e‡m|

4.     Preposition by e‡m|

5.     Subject wUi objective form e‡m|

‡hgb:

Active: Tuhin composes the sheet.                      Active: Kabir does the work.

Passive: The sheet is composed by Tuhin.          Passive: The work is done by Kabir

Active: Misty sings a song.                                 Active: It stores honey in the hive.

Passive: A song is sung by Misty.                      Passive: Honey is stored by it in the hive.

Present continuous tense  hy³ Active voice ‡K  passive voice  Ki‡Z n‡j|

1.     Object  wU‡K  subject  Ki‡Z nq|  

2.      cwiewZ©Z  Subject Abyhvqx  am/is/are being  e‡m|

3.     g~j Verb Gi  past participle form e‡m|

4.     By e‡m|

5.     Subject wUi objective form e‡m|

 

Present perfect tense : present perfect tense – ‡K  passive voice  Ki‡Z n‡j  

1.     Object wU  subject n‡e|

2.     cwiewZ©Z   Subject Abyhvqx   have / has been  e‡m|

3.     g~j   Verb Gi  past participle form  e‡m|

4.     By e‡m|

5.     Subject wUi  objective form  e‡m|

Active :Mamun has shut the door                                    

Passive :The door has been shut by Mamun                  

Active :Dilder has caught the birds        

Passive: The birds have been caught by Dilder

Active :Messi has bought a new computer                 

Passive :A new computer has been bought by Messi       

 

 

Note: Present perfect continuous tense Gi   passive voice   n‡jI Zv e¨en„Z nq bv|

 

Past Indefinite tense: Past indefinite tense hy³ active voice †K passive voice Ki‡Z n‡j

1.     Object wU‡K subject Ki‡Z nq

2.     cwiewZ©Z  subject Abyhvqx  was/were e‡m|

        3.  g~j verb Gi  past participle form e‡m|

        4. by e‡m|

        5. subject wUi objective form e‡m|

Active: Once a duck was roasted a duck for his master                      

Passive: Once a duck was roasted by a cook for his master         

Active: Papia dropped the eggs

Passive: The eggs were dropped by Papia

Active: I thanked Asif                                                        

Passive: Asif was thanked by me                                   

Active: People called him wise Solomon

Passive: He was called wise Solomon

 

Past Continuous Tense: Past continuous tense  hy³   active voice  ‡K   passive voice   Ki‡Z n‡j|

1.     object  wU‡K  subject  Ki‡Z n‡j|

2.     cwiewZ©Z  subject Abyhvqx   was being / were being   e‡m|

3.      g~j   verb  Gi  past participle form  e‡m|

4.     by  e‡m|

5.     subject  wUi  objective form e‡m|

       

Active: He was cutting some mangoes               

passive: Some mangoes were being cut by him  

Active: They were making a stage            

Passive: A stage was being made by them

Active: Popy was building a house                          

Passive: A house was being built by Popy            

 

Past perfect tense : Past perfect tense hy³ active voice ‡K  passive voice  Ki‡Z n‡j

1.     object  wU‡K  subject  Ki‡Z nq|

2.     had been e‡m|

3.     g~j  verb  Gi  past participle  e‡m|

4.     by  e‡m|

5.     subject wUi objective form  e‡m|

   

Active: They had beaten the child               

Passive: The child had been beaten by them  

 

Active: You had finished your work before noon

passive: Your work had been finished by you before noon

 

Active: Naeem had drunk water                    

Passive: Water had been drunk by naeem  

 

Active: He had caught a big fish

Passive: A big fish had been caught by him

 

Note: Past perfect continuous tense Gi   passive voice n‡jI Zv e¨en„Z nq bv|   

 

Future Indefinite tense : Future indefinite tense  hy³   active voice  ‡K   passive voice   Ki‡Z n‡j|

1.     object  wU‡K  subject  Ki‡Z n‡j|

2.     cwiewZ©Z  subject Abyhvqx  will be e‡m|

3.      g~j   verb  Gi  past participle form  e‡m|

4.     by  e‡m|

5.     subject  wUi  objective form e‡m|

Active: I will buy a book                                  Active:  Salman will find a horse

Passive: A book will be bought by me             Passive: A horse will be found by Salman

Active: They will grow more food                   Active: He will sell this house

Passive: More food will be grown by them      Passive: This house will be sold by him

 

Future Continuous Tense : Future continuous tense tense  hy³   active voice  ‡K   passive voice   Ki‡Z n‡j|

1.     object  wU‡K  subject  Ki‡Z n‡j|

2.     cwiewZ©Z  subject Abyhvqx will be being  e‡m|

3.      g~j   verb  Gi  past participle form  e‡m|

4.     by  e‡m|

5.     subject  wUi  objective form e‡m|

 

Active: I will be doing the sum                      Active: Taher will be playing cards

Passive: The sum will be being done by me  Passive: Cards will be being played by Taher

 

Future Perfect Tense : Future perfect tense  tense  hy³   active voice  ‡K   passive voice   Ki‡Z n‡j|

1.     object  wU‡K  subject  Ki‡Z n‡j|

2.     cwiewZ©Z  subject Abyhvqx will have been  e‡m|

3.      g~j   verb  Gi  past participle form  e‡m|

4.     by  e‡m|

5.     subject  wUi  objective form e‡m|

 

Active: Bodor will have written it           

Passive: It will have been written by Bodor  

Active: Joy will have changed the plan

Passive: The plan will have been changed by joy

Active: Jahed will have cleaned it                    

Passive: It will have been cleaned by Jahed   

Active: They will have given me a book

Passive: A book will have been given me by them

 

Note: Future Perfect Continuous Tense Gi  passive voice   nq bv|

 

Structures of Tenses

 

Present indefinite tense

Active: Sub + verb present + object          

Passive: Sub + am/is/are + verb P.P + preposition + obj

Active: Aziz plays football                          

Passive: Football is played by Aziz

 

Past indefinite tense

Active: Sub + verb past + object               

Passive: Sub + was/were + verb P.P + preposition + obj

Active: Aziz played football                      

Passive: Football was played by Aziz

 

Future indefinite tense

Active: Sub + will + verb + obj                  

Passive: Sub + will be + verb P.P + preposition + obj

Active: Aziz will play football                    

Passive: Football will be played by Aziz

 

Present continuous tense

Active: Sub + am/is/are +verb- ing + obj    

Passive: Sub+am/is/are+being+verbP.P+preposition+obj                                                                                    

Active: Mita is writing a letter                      

Passive: A letter is being written by Mita

 

Past continuous tense

Active: Sub + was/were + verb-ing + Obj   

Passive: Sub+was/were+being+verbP.P+preposition+obj

Active: Nitu was writing a letter                      

Passive: A letter was being written by Nitu

 

 

Future continuous tense

Active: Sub + will be +verb-ing + obj           

Passive: Sub+will be+being+verbP.P+preposition+obj

Active: Nitu will be writing a letter                  

Passive: A letter will be being written by Nitu

 

Present perfect tense

Active: Sub + have/has + verbP.P +obj            

Passive: Sub+have/has+been+verbP.P+preposition+obj

Active: Nitu has taken tea                                   

Passive: Tea has been taken by Nitu

Past perfect tense

Active: Sub + had + verbP.P + obj                      

Passive: sub + had been +verbP.P + preposition + obj

Active: Nitu had taken tea                                       

Passive: Tea had been taken by Nitu

 

Future perfect tense

Active: Sub + will have + verbP.P + obj          

Passive: Sub + will have been + verbP.P + preposition + obj

Active: Nitu will have taken tea                          

Passive: Tea will have been taken by Nitu

 

Double object  hy³  Active voice  ‡K  Passive voice  G i~cvšÍ‡ii wbqg :  

`ywU Object Gi †h †Kv‡bv GKwU‡K  passive voice  Gi   subject  Ki‡Z nq ( Z‡e cÖvwYevPK object ‡K  subject  KivB ‡kÖq )

 

Active: I gave him a ball                         Active: I will show him a watch

Passive: He was given a ball by me        Passive: He will be shown a watch by me

Active: He told me a story

Passive: I was told a story by him

Interrogative Sentence

 

Interrogative Sentence hy³ Active voice ‡K Passive voice  G cwieZ©b Kivi wbqg :

1.     cÖ_‡g Interrogative sentence wU‡K Lmovfv‡e Assertive sentence  G iƒcvšÍwiZ Ki‡Z nq|

2.      iƒcvšÍwiZ Assertive sentence wU‡K Lmovfv‡e Active ‡_‡K Passive voice G cwieZ©b Ki‡Z nq|

3.      Gevi iƒcvšÍwiZ Sentence Gi auxiliary verb wU‡K cÖ_‡g emv‡Z nq|

4.     cÖkœ‡evaK wPý e‡m|

    

Active: Do you like the pen?                 Active: Does he like cricket?

             You like the pen                                    He likes cricket

              The pen is liked by you                        Cricket is liked by him

Passive: Is the pen liked by you?           Passive: Is cricket liked by him?

   Active: Did he beat the boy?                  Active: Did he laugh at the poor?

             He beat the boy                                     He laughed at the poor

             The boy was beaten by him                  The poor were laughed at by him

Passive: Was the boy beaten by him?     Passive: Were the poor laughed at by him?

 

wewfbœ Tense G Interrogative sentence wewfbœ auxiliary verb Øviv ïiæ n‡j Zv‡`i Passive voice Kivi mgq tense I subject Abyhvqx mvnvh¨Kvix verb wUi cwiewZ©Z  subject Gi c~‡e© em‡e Ges  voice change Gi Ab¨vb¨ wbqg c~‡e© g‡ZvB †_‡K hvq|

 

Active: Has he done it?                           Active: Was he making a basket?

Passive: Has it been done by him?         Passive: Was a basket being made by him?

 

 Who hy³ Interrogative sentence Gi Active voice ‡K Passive voice G cwiYZ Kivi wbqg :

1.     Who Gi cwie‡Z© cÖ_‡g by whom e‡m|

2.     Tense I person Abyhvqx auxiliary verb e‡m|

3.     Object Gi subject nq|

4.     Tense Abyhvqx subject Gi c‡i be verb/being/been emv‡Z nq|

5.     g~jVerb Gi past participle e‡m|

6.     cÖkœ‡evaK wPý e‡m|

 

Active: Who spoke it?                             Active: Who has broken the glass?

Passive: By whom was it spoken?          Passive: By whom has the glass been broken?

Active: Who does it?                               Active: Who is doing it?

Passive: By whom is it done?                 Passive: By whom is it being done?

 

What hy³ Interrogative sentence Gi Active voice ‡K Passive voice Kivi wbqg :

1.     cÖ_‡g What  e‡m|

2.     Tense Abyhvqx auxiliary verb e‡m|

3.     g~j Verb Gi past participle e‡m|

4.     By e‡m|

5.     Subject wUi objective form e‡m|

6.     cÖkœ‡evaK wPý e‡m|

Active: What does mahin seek?          Active: What did you do?

Passive: What is sought by Mahin?    Passive: What was done by you?

 

Whom hy³ Interrogative sentence Gi Active voice ‡K Passive voice G cwieZ©‡bi wbqg :

1.     Whom Gi cwie‡Z© cÖ_‡g who e‡m|

2.     Tense Abyhvqx auxiliary verb e‡m|

3.     g~j Verb Gi past participle e‡m|

4.     By e‡m|

5.     Subject wUi objective form e‡m|

6.     cÖkœ‡evaK wPý e‡m|

Active: Whom do you want?         Active: Whom does he seek?

Passive: who is wanted by you?    Passive: Who is sought by him?

 

Why, when, where, how BZ¨vw` Øviv ev Interrogative Adverb w`‡q sentence ïiæ n‡j,Zv‡K Passive voice Kivi mgq D³ Interrogative Adverb ¸‡jvB ev‡K¨I cÖ_‡g ‡_‡K hvq| Voice change Gi Ab¨vb¨ wbqg c~‡e©I g‡ZvB nq|

 

Active: Why do they take the pencil?            Active: How have you done this?

Passive: Why is the pencil taken by them?   Passive: How has this been done by you?

Active: When will Iqbal write it?                Active: How does he finish the work?

Passive: When will it be written by Iqbal?  Passive: How is the work finished by him?

Active: When will they make the kite?     Active: Where did Zarif find you ?

Passive: When will the kite be made by them? Passive: Where were you found by Zarif?

                                      

Imperative Sentence

 

Imperative sentence Gi Active voice ‡K Passive voice Kivi wbqg :

ïay gvÎ  Verb w`‡q ïiæ  Active voice ‡K Passive voice  G iƒcvšÍwiZ Ki‡Z n‡j :

1.     cÖ_‡g Let e‡m|

2.     Object wU subject iƒ‡c e‡m|

3.     Be e‡m|

4.     g~j Verb Gi past participle e‡m|

 

Active: Make a kite                                    Active: Take care of your health

Passive: Let a kite be made (by you )        Passive: Let your health be taken care of

Active: Help the poor                                  Active: Do it

Passive: Let the poor be helped (by you )  Passive: Let it be done ( by you )

 

Let + e¨w³evPK object ( me, us, you, them, him, her ) hy³ Imperative sentence Gi Active voice ‡K Passive voice G iƒcvšÍwiZ Kivi wbqg :

1.     cÖ_‡g Let e‡m|

2.     Object wUB subject iƒ‡c e‡m|

3.     Be e‡m|

4.     g~j verb Gi past participle e‡m|

5.     By e‡m|

6.     cÖ`I e¨w³evPK Object wU e‡m|

 

Active: Let me sing a song                        Active: Let Monika read the book

Passive: Let a song be sung by me            Passive: ;Let the book be read by Monika

 

`ªóe¨ : Let  Gic‡i Second person e‡m bv| 

 

 

Imperative sentence Gi Active voice Gi cÖ_‡g ev †k‡l hw` Adverb _v‡K| Z‡e  Passive Kivi mgq Zv‡K ev‡K¨I †k‡l †i‡L w`‡Z nq|

 

Active: Always speak the truth                  Active: Today cut the tree

Passive: Let the truth be spoken always     Passive: Let the tree be cut today ( by you )

Active: Shut the door immediately            Active: Help him now

Passive: Let the door be shut immediately  Passive: Let him be helped now

 

Do not w`‡q ïiæ Imperative Sentence Gi Active voice ‡K Passive voice  G iƒcvšÍwiZ Ki‡Z n‡j

1.     cÖ_‡g Let not e‡m|

2.     Object wU subject iƒ‡c e‡m|

3.     Be e‡m|

4.     g~jVerb Gi  past participle e‡m|

      

Active: Don’t post the letter        

Passive: Let not the letter be posted ( by you )

Active: Do not break the mosque

Passive: Let not the mosque be broken ( by you)

 

Never hy³ Imperative sentence ‡K passive Kivi mgq:- 

Let not + object +ever + be + verb ( past participle )

                         Or,

Let + never + object + be + verb ( Past participle )

1)    Never catch the Jatka. ( Active )

Let not the jatka ever be caught. ( Passive )

Or,

Let never the jatka be caught. ( Passive )

2)    Never tell a lie. ( Active )

Let not a lie ever be told. ( Passive )

Or,

Let never a lie be told. ( Passive )

3)    Never drink dirty water. ( Active )

Let not dirty water ever be drunk. ( Passive )

Or,

Let never dirty water be drunk. ( passive )

4)    Never disobey your parents. ( Active )

Let not your parents ever be disobeyed. ( Passive )

Or,

Let never your parents be disobeyed. ( Passive )

 

 

 

 

Imperative sentence G please/kindly _vK‡j passive  Kivi mgq :-

Please/kindly Gi ¯’v‡b you are requested to e¨en„Z nq|

1)    Please, enter by the other door. ( Active )

You are requested to enter by the other door. ( Passive )

2)    Kindly solve the problem. ( Active )

You are requested to solve the problem. ( Passive )

3)    Please, open the door. ( Active )

You are requested to open the door. ( Passive )

 

Modal auxiliary ‡K passive Kivi mgq

Modal + be + verb-past participle  nq|

 

1)    You can eat rice. ( Active )

Rice can be eaten by you. ( Passive )

2)    He should respect his parents. ( Active )

His parents should be respected by him. ( Passive )

3)    They may take coffee. ( Active )

Coffee may be taken by them. ( Passive )

 

Modal + have + verb-past participle  _vK‡j passive Kivi mgq

Modal + have + been + verb-past participle  nq|

a)     You should have done it. ( Active )

It should have been done by you. ( Passive )

b)    He ought to have helped me. ( Active )

I ought to have been helped by him. ( Passive )

c)     He must have stolen my computer. ( Active )

My computer must have been stolen by him. ( Passive )

 

Quasi-passive Verb

 

‡h mKj Verb ev¯Í‡e active wKš‘ passive  Gi A_© cÖKvk K‡i Zv‡`i‡K quasi-passive verb ejv nq|

Quasi passive verb  `yB cÖKvi:-

1)    Quasi verb with a complement :- GmKj verb Gi complement _v‡K|G‡`i‡K passive Kivi mgq :-

Subject + be verb + complement + when/if it is ( they are ) + verb-past participle

Or,

Subject + be verb + verb-past participle + complement

a.      Honey tastes sweet. ( Active )

Honey is sweet when it is tasted. ( passive )

Or,

Honey is tasted sweet. ( Passive )

 

b.     Rice sells cheap. ( Active )

Rice is cheap when it is sold. ( Passive  )

Or,

Rice is sold cheap. ( Passive )

c.      The novel reads well. ( Active )

The novel is well when it is read. ( Passive )

Or,

The novel is read well. ( Passive )

d.     Mangoes tasted sweet. ( Active )

Mangoes were sweet when they were tasted. ( Passive )

Or,

Mangoes were tasted sweet. ( Passive )

e.      The perfume smells sweet. ( Active )

The perfume is sweet if it is smelt. ( Passive )

Or,

The perfume is smelt sweet. ( Passive )

 

2)    Quasi verb without a complement :-  GB ai‡Yi verb Gi complement _v‡K bv|G‡`i‡K voice Gi cªPwjZ wbq‡g passive Kiv nq|

a.      The house is building. ( Active )

The house is being built. ( Passive )

b.     The cows are milking. ( Active )

The cows are being milked. ( Passive )

 

Reflexive verb

 

Reflexive verb  hy³ Active voice †K Passive voice G iƒcvšÍ‡ii wbqg : †h verb  Gi subject Ges object GKB e¨w³ , Zv‡K Reflexive verb  ejv nq  Ges object  wU‡K Reflexive verb  ejv nq|

wbqg :

1.      cÖ_‡g cÖ`I Active voice  Gi subject  wU AcwiewZ©Z Ae¯’vq Passive voice  Gi wnmv‡e e‡m|

2.     Tense I person Abyhvqx auxiliary verb  e‡m|

3.      g~j verb Gi past participle e‡m|

4.     By e‡m|

5.     Reflexive object wUB e‡m|

 

Active: He hurt himself                           Active: He poisoned himself

Passive: He was hurt by himself              Passive: He was poisoned by himself

 

 

 

 

Factitive object/complement object hy³ Active voice ‡K Passive voice G cwieZ©‡bi wbqg:

Select, elect, nominate, make, call, name BZ¨vw` transitive verb ¸‡jvi object _vKv m‡Z¡I m¤ú~Yiƒ‡c A_© cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| cwic~~Y© A_© cÖKvk Kivi Rb¨ AwZwi³ object Avb‡Z nq| GBiƒ‡c AwZwi³ object ‡K Factitive object ejv nq|

wbqg :

1.     cÖ`I   Pronominal object wU  ( me, us, you, them, him, her ) subject nq|

2.     Tense I person Abyhvqx auxiliary verb e‡m|

3.     g~j Verb Gi past participle e‡m|  

4.     Factitive object wU e‡m|

5.     By e‡m|

6.     Subject wUi objective form e‡m|

 

Active: We made him captain                    

Passive: He was made captain by us          

 

Active: They elected him chairman of the club

Passive: He was elected chairman of the club by them

 

Active: We call him a fool                              

Passive: He is called a fool by us                 

 

Active: People selected him a member

Passive: He was selected a member by people

 

Infinitive hy³ sentence Gi Active voice G hLb has to, had to, is going to, was going to, ought to, used to, have got to BZ¨vw`i && D‡jøL _v‡K , ZLb Passive voice Kivi mgq wb‡Pi wbqgwU AbymiY Kwi|    

1.     Object wU  subject n‡e|

2.     Tense I subject Abyhvqx  has to/had to BZ¨vw` e‡m|

3.     Be em‡e|

4.     g~j Verb Gi  past participle form em‡e|

5.     By em‡e|

6.     Subject wUi object form em‡e |

 

Active: Naeem has to do the work

Passive: The work has to be done by Naeem  

Active: They used to burn the dead body

Passive: The dead body was used to be burnt by them

 

 

 

 

 

Other Infinitive combinations (Infinitive hy³ Ab¨vb¨ Active voice ‡K passive voice Kivi wbqg ):

Subject Gi ci liking/loving/wanting/wishing etc + object+ infinitive hy³ Active voice †K Passive voice- G iƒcvšÍi Ki‡Z n‡j :

1.     cÖ`I Active voice Gi subject + verb e‡m|

2.     Infinitive Gi c‡ii object ( hw` _v‡K ) e‡m|

3.     To be ( passive infinitive ) e‡m|

4.     Infinitive Gi c‡ii verb Gi past participle e‡m|

Active: He wants someone to take photographs      Active: I want him to write the latter

Passive: He wants photographs to be taken             Passive: I want the letter to be written

 

wKš‘ Advice/beg/order/recommend/urage/+ Indirect object + Infinitive + Direct object hy³ Active voice ‡K Passive voice G iƒcvšÍi Kivi wbqg :

1.     Indirect object wU subject nq|

2.     Tense Abyhvqx  auxiliary verb e‡m|

3.     g~j  Verb Gi past participle e‡m|

4.     Infinitive  ‡_‡K †kl ch©šÍ e‡m|

1.     Active voice Gi subject verb

2.     That

3.     Direct object ( Infinitive  object )

4.     Passive Infinitive ( should be + past participle )

Active: The manager urged the supervisor to reduce the rates

Passive: The supervisor was urged to reduce the rates

            Or, The manager urged that the rates should be reduced

 

Agree/be anxious/arrange/determine/ be determined/decide/demand + infinitive + object hy³ Active voice ‡K Passive voice G iƒcvšÍ‡ii wbqg :

1.     cÖ`I Active voice Gi subject I verb e‡m|

2.     That e‡m|

3.     Infinitive Gic‡ii object ( Direct object )

4.     Should be e‡m|

5.     Infinitive Gi c‡ii verb Gi past participle e‡m|

Active: He decided to sell the house   Passive: He decided that the house should be sold

 

Gerund Combinations : advise/insist/propose/recommend/suggest + gerund + object hy³ Active voice ‡K Passive voice G iƒcvšÍ‡ii wbqg :

1.     cÖ`I Active voice Gi subject I verb e‡m|

2.     That e‡m|

3.     Gerund Gi c‡ii object wU e‡m|

4.     Should be e‡m|

5.     cÖ`I Gerund wU verb G iƒcvšÍwiZ n‡q Zvi past participle e‡m|

Active : He suggested giving up smoking    

Passive: He suggested that smoking should be given up

Need, bid, dare, make, hear, know, behold watch cÖf~wZ verb ¸‡jvi ci Active voice Gi  to Dn¨ _v‡K| Z‡e Passive Kivi mgq Zv‡`i c‡i to e‡m|Z‡e let G verb wUi ci  Passive G to e‡m bv|

     Active : He made to do the work by him        Active : I saw him go

     Passive : I was made to do the work by him   Passive : He was seen to go by me

 

One + should hy³ sentence ‡K passive Kivi  wbqg :

1.      cÖ_‡g Object wU subject iƒ‡c e‡m|

2.     Should be + g~j verb Gi past participle e‡m|

Active : One should take care of one’s health   Passive: Health should be taken care of

 

Complex Sentence

Complex sentence ‡K Passive voice Ki‡Z n‡j Principle clause Ges sub-ordinate clause Df‡qi Passive Ki‡Z nq|  Principle clause Gi mvaviYZ  object _v‡K bv| ZvB D³ As‡ki object wnmv‡e it wb‡Z nq|

Active: I know that you helped him                 

Passive: It is known to me that he was helped by you

Active: I thought that Sabina had sung a song

 Passive: It was thought by me that a song had been sung by Sabina

 

Complex sentence Gi sub-ordinary clause Gi hw` object bv _v‡K D³ As‡ki passive voice Kivi `iKvi nq bv| G ai‡Yi sentence Gi †ejvq Principal clauseGi  subject wnmv‡e it wb‡qI passive voice Kiv hvq| ZvQvov Sub-ordinary clause Gi that mn c‡ii meUzKz‡K sentence Gi subject K‡i passive Kiv hvq|

Active: I know that he is a good boy               

Passive: It is known to me that he is a good boy

         Or That he is a good boy is known to me

 

And Øviv `ywU  sentence hy³ n‡j hw`  and Gi Dfq As‡k object _v‡K Z‡e Df‡qiB wbqg Abyhvqx cwieZ©b n‡e| Avi  and Gi cieZ©x As‡k †Kvb object bv _vK‡j ïay cÖ_g Ask cwiewZ©Z nq|

Active: He ate rice and gave me the plate        

Passive: Rice was eaten and I was given the plate by him 

Active: Shanta ate rice and went to school

Passive: Rice was eaten by shanta and (she ) went to school 

 

KZ¸‡jv Verb Gi c‡i by preposition bv e‡m with, at, to  BZ¨vw` e‡m|   

‡hgb- Gratify = gratified with , please = please with , satisfy = satisfied with , bless= blessed with , glad glad at , know= known to , surprise = surprised at , fill= filled with BZ¨vw`|

Active: Robin pleased us all                          Active: His conduct annoyed me

Passive: We all were pleased with Robin      Passive: I was annoyed at his conduct

Active: I know the man                                 Active: The book contains useful information

Passive: The man is known to me      Passive: Useful information is contained in the book

 

Subject e¯‘evPK n‡j need Gi ci to  be + past participle/verb-ing n‡e|

a)     This essay needs to revise. ( Incorrect )

This essay needs to be revised. ( Correct )

This essay needs revising.  ( Correct )

b)    The house needs to paint. ( Incorrect )

The house needs to be painted. ( Correct )

The house needs painting. ( Correct )

 

Let, make, bid, see, hear, please, know, feel, dare, behold, watch, notice, need BZ¨vw` verb mg~‡ni ci active voice G to Dn¨ _v‡K wKš‘ passive G to n‡e| let Gi †ÿ‡Î passive G to nq bv|

a.      We pleased him make the negotiation. ( Active )

He was pleased to make the negotiation with us. ( Passive )

b.     I noticed him sing a song. ( Active )

He was noticed to sing a song by me. ( Passive )

c.      I let him do the work. ( Active )

He was let do the work by me. ( Passive )

 

Love, like, want, wish, desire GB verb mg~‡ni ci object Ges infinitive _vK‡j passive Kivi mgq:-

Subject ( active Gi subject ) + verb (AcwiewZ©Z) + e¯‘evPK object + to + be + verb-past participle + preposition +  e¨w³evPK object

a.      I want him to do the work. ( Active )

I want the work to be done by him. ( Passive )

b.     They wished me to sing a song. ( Active )

They wished a song to be sung by me. ( Passive )

 

It is time Gi ci infinitive _vK‡j passive Kivi mgq:-

It is time + for + object + to be + verb-past participle nq| 

a.      It is time to do your homework. ( Active )

It is time for your homework to be done. ( Passive )

b.     It is time to open the door. ( Active )

It is time for the door to be opened. ( Passive )

 

wKQz wKQzVerb  †Kvb wbqg QvovB passive nq|

1.     He has a cow. ( Active )

A cow is had by him. ( Passive )

2.     He died of Malaria. ( Active )

He was caused to die of Malaria. ( Passive )

3.     I am sorry to disturb you. ( Active )

I am sorry to have disturbed you. ( Passive )

4.     I have worked for an hour. ( Active )

An hour was spent by me in working. ( Passive )

Passive voice ‡_‡K Active voice Kivi wbqg :

A‡bK mgq †`Lv hvq  Passive voice G Kvi Øviv KvRwU m¤úbœ n‡q‡Q Zvi bvg _v‡K bv| G ai‡bi ev‡K¨i  voice cwieZ©b Ki‡Z n‡j someone, people, we, the boy, he BZ¨vw`‡K subject  wnmv‡e e¨envi Ki‡Z nq| Z‡e †Kv‡bv KvR hLb GK e¨w³i Øviv Kiv m¤¢eci ZLb singular subject wb‡Z nq| Avi hLb †Kvb KvR GKvi c‡ÿ mvaviYZ Kiv m¤¢e bq, ZLb plural subject  wb‡Z nq|

 

Passive: Ashraf is called a liar                          Passive: It is said

Active: People/they call Ashraf a liar               Active: Someone says it

Passive: They were defeated                             Passive: It is called paradise

Active: People/we defeated them                     Active: People/we call it paradise

Passive: He was carried to hospital                  Passive: My watch was stolen

Active: People/they carried him to hospital     Active: Someone stole my watch

Passive: The dead body was buried                 Passive: He is not known here

Active: People/they buried the dead body       Active: Nobody knows him here

 

wb¤œwjwLZ  Verb ¸‡jvi  passive voice nq bv| KviY Giv Intransitive verb : 

Die, appear, seem, disappear, happen, belong, despair, allude, occur, ensure, wonder, comprise, perish, refer, issue, indulge  BZ¨vw`|

 Incorrect: It was appeared                          Inc: This mobile set is belonged to me

 Cor: It appeared                                         Cor: This mobile set belongs to me

 Inc: It was happened                                  Inc: He was died

 Cor: It happen                                            Cor: He died

 

 

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