Mastering Tense and Number: Essential English Grammar for all Students

Dive into our comprehensive guide on Tense and Number, tailored specifically for Bangladeshi students studying English 2nd paper. Enhance your grammar skills and ace your exams with confidence.

Apr 19, 2024 - 10:59
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Mastering Tense and Number: Essential English Grammar for all Students
Mastering Tense and Number Essential English Grammar for all Students

TENSE AND NUMBER

►Onset by the name of Allah who is the beneficent and merciful. ïiæ K‡ib Avjøvn&i bv‡g whwb cig KiæYvgq Ges AwZ `qvjy| Learn by the name of Allah who has created you. wk‡Lb Avjøvn&i bv‡g whwb Avcbv‡K m„wó K‡i‡Qb|

 

This composition must cooperate you to comprehend English.

GB iPbv Avcbv‡K Aek¨B Bs‡iRx eyS‡Z mvnvh¨ Ki‡e|

 

If you feel like learning English, (hw` Avcbvi Bs‡iRx wkL‡Z B‡”Q K‡i) Carry on. Pvwj‡q hvb| This is how……….Gfv‡e..........

 

Number `yB cÖKvi| †hgb:

01.     Singular number- GKePb: GKwU ev GKRb eySv‡j Singular number nq|

†hgb: He, She, It, The pen, A book etc.

02.     Plural number- eûePb: GKwU ev GKR‡bi †ewk eySv‡j Plural number nq|

‡hgb: They, We, The pens etc.

 

Person wZb cÖKvi| †hgb:

01.     1st person → I and We.

02.     2nd person → You.

03.     3rd person → I Ges You Qvov GKv Av‡Q hviv 3rd person singular number Zviv| †hgb: He, She, They, It, The man, The men, The woman, The women, The virgin, College Road, Mymensingh, Dhaka and so on.

 

3rd Person Singular Number (wkL‡Z n‡e)

 

I Ges You Qvov GKv Av‡Q hviv 3rd person singular number Zviv|

†hgb: It, He, She, Misty, Ayon, A man, The man, A woman, The woman, A fan, A door, MasterMind, Hazi Elias Ali Market, College Road, Beanibazar, Sylhet.

 

Every person

cÖ‡Z¨K e¨w³

Everyone

cÖ‡Z¨‡K

Everybody

cÖ‡Z¨K e¨w³

Everything

mewKQz

Anyone

‡h †KD

Anything

†h †Kvb wKQz

No one/Nobody

‡KD bv

Nothing

†Kvb wKQzB bv

Someone/Somebody

†KD

Something

wKQz

Each of them

Zv‡`i cÖ‡Z¨‡K

One of them

Zv‡`i GKRb

Either of them

Zv‡`i cÖ‡Z¨‡KB

Neither of them

Zv‡`i †KD bv

 

►Infinite, gerund, verbal noun, clause BZ¨vw` ev‡K¨i Subject wn‡m‡e _vK‡j Zv 3rd person singular number.

Ex: To tell a lie is a great sin.

Ex: Swimming is a good exercise.

Ex: The writing of poem is my favorite hobby.

Ex: That you completed the course is known to me.

 

GKK `yiZ¡, cwigvY, mgq, &IRb, eqm, A_© BZ¨vw` 3rd person singular number.

Ex: Fifty yards is a good distance.

Ex: Ten thousand dollars is a big amount of money.

 

Uncountable noun Ges Abstract noun A‡_©i w`K †_‡K plural n‡jI 3rd person singular number. G ai‡bi noun ¸‡jv n†jv: Scenery - `„k¨, machinery - hš¿cvwZ, furniture - AvmevecÎ, wages - gRywi, poetry - Kve¨, Issue - Av‡jvP¨ welq, brick - BU, hair - Pzj, alphabet - eY©gvjv, luggage - gvj-cÎ, air - evZvm, smoke - ‡auvqv, oxygen - A¤øRvb, water - cvwb, milk - `ya, ink - Kvwj, soup - ‡Svj, dust - a~jv, sand - evwj, rice - fvZ, grass - Nvm, salt - jeb, honesty - mZZv, courage - mvnm, peace - kvwšÍ, sympathy - mnvbyf~wZ, football, cotton - Zzjv, cooking - ivbœv, parking - Mvwo ivLvi ¯’vb, training - cÖwkÿY, clothing - ‡cvkvK cwi”Q`, love - fvjevmv, advice - Dc‡`k, knowledge - Ávb

Ex: Milk is not cheap in cost.

Ex: The scenery of Cox’s Bazar is very charming.

 

►Physics - c`v_©we`¨v, mathematics - MwYZ, politics - ivRbxwZ, gallows - duvwmKvV, economics - A_©bxwZ, civics - ‡cŠibxwZ, ethics - bxwZwe`¨v, statistics - cwimsL¨vbwe`¨v BZ¨vw` 3rd person singular number

Ex: The Wages of sin is death.

Ex: Mathematics is my favorite subject.

 

►And Øviv hy³ `ywU c` GKB e¨w³‡K wb‡`©k Ki‡j cÖ_g c‡`i c~‡e©B The e‡m wKš‘ wØZxq c‡`i c~‡e©B The e‡m bv G iKg n‡j Zv 3rd person singular number.

Ex: The headmaster and secretary has helped a lame dog over a stile.

GLv‡b whwb headmaster wZwbB secretary. Zvi gv‡b GKRb‡K eySv‡”Q|

 

mvaviYZ and Øviv hy³ `ywU c` Avjv`v `yÕRb e¨w³‡K wb‡`©k Ki‡j `yÕwU c‡`i c~‡e©B The e‡m| G iKg n‡j Zv 3rd person singular number bv|

Ex: The headmaster and the secretary have given me a hand.

GLv‡b whwb headmaster GKRb Ges secretary Ab¨Rb| Zvi gv‡b GKRb‡K eySv‡”Q bv|

 

►Aristocracy - AwfRvZ kvmK‡Mvôx, nobility - gnvbyfeZv, clergy - hvRKgÛjx, people - RbZv, police - cywjk, public - RbmvaviY, peasantry - K…lK †kÖYx, mankind - gvbeRvZx, cattle - Mevw` cï, poultry - nuvmgyiwM, folk - ‡jvK, gentry - AwfRvZ m¤úª`vq, vermin - AwbôKi RxeRš‘, dozen - Awbw`©ó msL¨v, pair - ‡Rvov BZ¨vw` †`L‡Z singular g‡b n‡jI G¸‡jv 3rd person singular number bv|

Ex: The police in Bangladesh are more corrupted than before.

Ex: The nobility of Bangladeshi are seen in a blue moon.

 

 

Present Indefinite Tense A_ev Present Simple Tense

 

wbZ¨,Af¨vmMZ I wPišÍb mZ¨ Present Indefinite Tense.

†hgb Ñ Kwi, K‡i, K‡ib, Kwim, hvB, hvq, hvb, hvm, cwo, co, c‡o, c‡ob, cwim, NygvB, Nygvq, NygvI, Nygvb, Nygvm, D‡V, Wy‡e, bv‡P, Mvq, ‡Lwj, †Lj, †L‡jb, †Lwjm, Av‡m, Avwm, Av‡mb BZ¨vw`|

 

►Subject + V1 + Object + Extension.

 

hw` Subject 3rd person singular number nq Z‡e g~j Verb Gi mv‡_ s ev es ‡hvM Ki‡Z nq| †h me Verb Gi †k‡l s, h, x, o Ges z _v‡K Zv‡`i †k‡l mvaviYZ es ‡hvM Ki‡Z nq|

‡hgb:

wgwó ingvb Avgv‡K Bs‡iRx wkLvq|

Misty Rahman teaches me English.

Aqb mvaviYZ mwZ¨ NUbv cÖKvk K‡i|

Ayon generally expresses true event.

Avwg †Zvgv‡K Av`i Kwi I adore you.

 

Note: Always - me©`v, daily - cÖwZw`b, every + time (everyday, every week, every year, every month etc), generally - mvaviYZ, naturally - cÖK…wZMZfv‡e, normally - ¯^vfvweKev‡e, ordinarily - mvaviYfv‡e, regularly - wbqwgZev‡e, usually - mPivPi, frequently / sometimes - gv‡S gv‡S, occasionally - gv‡S gv‡S, (very) often - cÖvqB, now and then - gv‡S gv‡S, BZ¨vw` _vK‡j evK¨wU mvaviYZ present indefinite tense nq| Z‡e past habit (AZxZ Af¨vm)  eySv‡j evK¨vwU past indefinite tense nq|

Ex: Rubel says prayer everyday.

Ex: He was never absent from School.

 

Present continuous Tense

 

†h KvRwU eZ©gv‡b Pwj‡Z‡Q Zv‡K Present Continuous Tense e‡j|

 

evsjvq wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqv c‡`i †k‡l †ZQ, †ZwQ, †Z‡Q, †Z‡Qb, ”Q, †”Q, w”Q, †”Qb, wQ, Q, †Qb, BZ¨vw`i †h †Kvb GKwU †hvM _v‡K|

 

MVb: Subject + am/is/are + V4 + object + Extension.

 

‡hgb:

mv`gvb GKwU Mvb MvB‡Q|

Sadman is singing a song.

Zviv gv‡V wµ‡KU †Lwj‡Z‡Q|

They are playing Cricket in the field.

Avwg GLb Bs‡iRx wkLwQ|

Now I am learning English.

 

Note: I Gi Rb¨ am, 3rd person singular number Gi Rb¨ is, evwK mevi Rb¨ are.

 

Note:  V1 - verb Gi Present form,               V2 - Verb Gi Past form,

               V3 - Verb Gi Past participle form,   V4 - Verb Gi mv‡_ ing

Note: ‡Kvb sentence-G now, at this moment, at this time, day by day, day after day, gradually, increasingly BZ¨vw` _vK‡j D³ sentence wU mvaviYZ present continuous tense nq

Ex: The students of Atik sir are increasing day by day.

 

Present Perfect Tense

 

†h KvRwU GB gvÎ †kl n‡q‡Q wKš‘ Zvi dj GLbI eZ©gvb Zv‡K Present Perfect Tense e‡j|

 

evsjvq wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqv c‡`i †k‡l qvQ, qvwQ, qv‡Q, †q‡Qb, †qP, †q‡Q GiKg GKwU †hvM _v‡K|

 

MVY: Subject + have/has + V3 + object + Extension.

 

‡hgb:

†mv‡qe KvRwU Kwiqv‡Q|

Shoyeb has done the work.

Avgiv Zv‡K mvnvh¨ KwiqvwQ|

We have helped him.

 

Note: 3rd person singular number Gi Rb¨ has Ges mevi Rb¨ have.

Note: ‡Kvb sentence G just, just now, ever, yet, still. lately, recently, already, in the mean time, so far, up to now, up to the present BZ¨vw` _vK‡j D³ sentence wU mvaviYZ present perfect tense nqÒjust”kãwU have/has Ges V3 Gi gv‡S e‡m|

Ex: We have just reached MasterMind.

Ex: I have got admitted at MasterMind recently.

 

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

 

‡h KvRwU AZx‡Z ïiæ n‡q GLbI Pj‡Q Zv‡K Present Perfect Continuous Tense e‡j|

 

MVY: Subject + Number Ges Person Abymv‡i have been/has been + verb Gi mv‡_ ing + object + Extension.

 

Note: GB Tense G since Ges for e‡m| wbw`©ó mgq eySv‡j since Ges Awbw`©ó mgq eySv‡j for e‡m| msL¨v Øviv cÖKvk Kiv hvq G iKg mg‡qi Av‡M for e‡m| †hgb- 1 N›Uv, 2 N›Uv, 3 N›Uv .........

 

‡hgb:

ivwKe mKvj nB‡Z †KviAvb ci‡Q|

Rakib has been reading the Quran since morning.

Zviv wZb N›Uv hver †Lj‡Q|

They have been playing for three hours.

 

Past Indefinite Tense

 

†h KvRwU m¤úyY© iƒ‡c †kl Zv‡K Past Indefinite Tense e‡j|

 

wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqv c‡`i †k‡l j, jvg, wQjvg, †jb, wQ‡jb, Z, †Z, Zvg, †Zb, wb BZ¨vw`i †h †Kvb GKwU †hvM _v‡K|

 

MVb: Subject +V2 + object +Extension

 

‡hgb:

Aqb GLv‡b evm KiZ|

Ayon lived here.

‡m GKwU KweZv wjLj|

He wrote a poem.

 

Note: ‡Kvb sentence G AZxZ wb‡`©kK †Kvb kã ev phrase ‡hgb yesterday, last week, last month, last year, last decade, last century, long ago, long since, once upon a time, once, formerly, back, in the past, in those days, the day before, the previous day BZ¨vw` _vK‡j  past indefinite tense  nq|

Ex: I completed my task two days ago.

 

Past Continuous Tense

 

†h KvRwU AZx‡Z PjwQj Zv‡K Past Continuous Tense e‡j|

 

evsjvq wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqv c‡`i †k‡l †ZwQj, †ZwQ‡j, †ZwQjvg, †ZwQ‡jb, w”Qj, w”Qjvg, w”Q‡jb BZ¨w`i †h †Kvb GKwU †hvM _v‡K|

 

MVb: Subject + was/were + V4 + object + Extension.

 

‡hgb :

Avgiv gvQ ai‡ZwQjvg|

We were catching fish.

wgï GKwU Mvb MvB‡ZwQj|

Mishu was singing a song.

 

Note: Subject singular number n‡j was Ges Plural number n‡j were e‡m|

 

 

Past Perfect Tense

 

GB Tense `ywU Tense _v‡K| GKwU Past Perfect Tense AciwU Past Indefinite Tense. ‡h KvRwU Av‡M nq Zv Past Perfect Tense Ges †h KvRwU c‡i nq Zv Past Indefinite Tense. GB Tense G before Ges after e‡m| Before Gi Av‡M Ges after Gi c‡i Past Perfect Tense e‡m| After Gi Av‡M Ges before Gi c‡i Past Indefinite Tense e‡m|

 

 

 

MVb:

►(1) Subject + had + V3 + object + before + subject + V2

►(2) Subject + V2 + object + after + subject + had + V3

►(3) No sooner + had + subject + V3+ object +Extension + than + Past indefinite tense.

►(4) Scarcely/Hardly + had + subject + V3+ obj +Extension + when + past indefinite tense.

 

‡hgb:

†gŠ Avwmevi c~‡e© Avwg Pv cvb Kijvg|

I had taken tea before Mou came.

Zviv bvUKwU †`Lvi ci Avwg †mLv‡b †cŠQjvg|

I reached there after they had watched the drama.

Avwg evwn‡i ‡h‡Z bv †h‡ZB e„wó Gj|        

No sooner had I gone out than the rain came.

 

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

 

AZxZ Kv‡j `yBwU Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ †h KvRwU `xN© mgq a‡i PjwQj Zv‡K Past Perfect Continuous Tense e‡j|

 

MVb: Subject + had been + V4 + object + Extension.

 

‡hgb:

Avwg wZb w`b hver KvRwU Kwi‡ZwQjvg|

I had been doing the work for three days.

Zviv Avwmevi c~‡©e wMqvm `yBN›Uv hver eBwU cwi‡ZwQj|

Giash had been reading the book for two hours before they came.

 

Keep Atik Sir In Touch And Shape Your English

 

Future Indefinite Tense

 

†h KvRwU NU‡e ev n‡e Zv‡K Future Indefinite Tense e‡j|

 

evsjvq wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqv c‡`i †k‡l e, †e, †eb BZ¨vw`i †h †Kvb GKwU †hvM _v‡K|

 

MVb: Sobject + Shall/Will + V1+ object + Extension.

 

‡hgb:

Avwg XvKv hve|

I shall/will go to Dhaka

Zviv gv‡V †Lj‡e|

They will play in the field.

 

Note: 1st person G shall Ges me RvqMvq will e‡m| shall Gi e¨envi GLb †bB ej‡jB P‡j|

 

Future Continuous Tense

 

†h KvRwU fwel¨r Kv‡j Pj‡Z _vwK‡e Zv‡K Future Continuous Tense e‡j|

 

evsjvq wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqv c‡`i †k‡l †Z_vwKe, †Z_vwK‡e, †Z_vwK‡eb BZ¨vw`i †h †Kvb GKwU †hvM _v‡K|

 

MVY: Subject + Shall be/will be + V4 + object +Extension.

 

‡hgb:

Awj GKwU Mvb MvB‡Z _vwK‡e|

Oli will be singing a song.

Avgiv Bnv †`LvB‡Z _vwKe|

We will be showing it.

 

Future Perfect Tense

 

fwel¨r Kv‡j `ywU Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ †h KvRwU Av‡M †kl n‡q _vK‡e Zv‡K Future Perfect Tense e‡j|

 

evsjvq wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqv c‡`i †k‡l Bqv_vwKe,Bqv_vwK‡e,Bqv_vwK‡eb BZ¨vw`i †h  †Kvb GKwU †hvM _v‡K|

 

MVb: Subject + shall have/will have + V3+ object + Extension.

 

‡hgb:

†m Avwmevi cy‡e© Avwg Pv ˆZix Kwiqv_vwKe|

I shall/will have made tea before he will come/he comes.

 

Note: ‡h KvRwU c‡i nq Dnv Future Indefinite Tense A_ev Present Indefinite Tense nq|

 

 

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

 

fwel¨r Kv‡j `ywU Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ ‡h KvRwU Av‡M †_‡K Pj‡Z _vK‡e Zv‡K Future Perfect Continuous Tense e‡j|

 

evsjvq wPwbevi Dcvq: evsjv wµqv c‡`i †k‡l †Z_vwKe, †Z_vwK‡e, †Z_vwK‡eb BZ¨vw`i †h †Kvb GKwU †hvM _v‡K|

 

MVb: Subject + shall have been/will have been + V4 + object + Extension.

 

‡hgb:

Zzwg bv Avmv ch©šÍ Avwg †Zvgvi Rb¨ A‡c¶v Kwi‡Z _vwKe|

I shall have been waiting for you until you will come/you come.

bvmwib `yB N›Uv a‡i KvRwU Kwi‡Z _vwK‡e|

Nsarin will have been doing the work for two hours.

 

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